Monday, August 18, 2014

Re'ay, Devarim 13:1. Bal Tosif and Krias Shema

Our parsha tells us the din of Bal Tosif.  In the past, we discussed the question of why every asmachta is not a problem of Bal Tosif.  Today, we're going to talk about Bal Tosif and Kerias Shema.

The sefer Divrei Yaakov brings a machlokes Chafetz Chaim and Chazon Ish whether there's a din of בל תוסיף on קריאת שמע.  In other words, if a person said קריאת שמע after the proper time with kavana to be mekayeim the mitzva, is he over בל תוסיף.  Both are mipi hashemu'ah, but the sources are very reliable.

Chafetz Chaim:
בספר הצדיק רבי שלמה [והוא תולדות של הצדיק רבי שלמה בלוך תלמיד של החפץ חיים] בעמוד מ״ב אות ס״ב כתוב שאמר הרב הנ״ל בשם החפץ חיים שהקורא קריאת שמע לאחר זמנה בכוונה למצוות קריאת שמע עובר בלאו דאורייתא דבל תוסיף עכ״ד

Chazon Ish:
 בספר מעשה איש חלק ג' עמוד ק״כ כתוב בשם ספר המעיר סימן ב' ס״ק אי שאמר החזון איש שדוקא בעושה דבר הרשות לשם מצוה יש איסור בל תוסיף כגון סוכה ביום השמיני אבל בעושה דבר מצוה לשם מצוה אחרת כגון הקורא קריאת שמע לאחר זמנה שהקריאת שמע הוא דברי תורה אלא שהוא כיוון לקריאת שמע הויא מחשבה בעלמא ובמחשבה אין בל תוסיף עכ״ד

Reb Moshe in the Igros, OC OC II:60, says exactly the same thing as the Chazon Ish, but he leaves it as a safek le'halacha.

 ובעצם מסופקני אם יש איסור בל תוסיף בק'ש שהוא גם למוד תורה, שלא מצינו שאיכא בל תוסיף בק'ש. וראיה שהרי רצו לקבוע עשרת הדברות בק'ש בדף י״ב ואם איכא בל תוסיף בק'ש הרי היה זה בל תוסיף ככהן שמוסיף עוד ברכה, וא'כ כ'ש שלקרות שלא בזמנה אף במכוין למצוה ליכא בל תוסיף וצ״ע לדינא

I want to point out a little problem with their svara that saying Krias Shema is a maaseh mitzva because of the Mitzva of talmud torah.

  • The Radvaz (III:416) says (arguing with the Ran in Nedarim 8a) that after you have learned one thing a day, the other learning you do is a reshus, not a chova.  
  • I say, and I think it's pretty obvious, that even if you hold  מצות אינן צריכות כוונה, that's only by a mitzva chiyuvis, because of סתמה לשמה.  But by a mitzva kiyumis, there's no סתמה לשמה, and so everyone would agree that מצוות צריכות כוונה.  
  • If so, if a person says Krias Shema חוץ לזמנו, and he has kavana to be yotzei the mitzva of Krias Shema, but he does not have kavana for the mitzva of Limud Torah, he won't fulfill any mitzva of Talmud Torah, and there ought to be בל תוסיף, because it's not a maaseh mitzva.

But with a small adjustment, we can say like Reb Moshe and the Chazon Ish.  The Lechem Mishna in the beginning of hilchos Tefilla says that the ikar of Krias Shema is Yichud Hashem, which is actually a mitzva twenty four hours a day.  If so, if Krias Shma is a form of the mitzva of yichud, then a person that has kavana to fulfill the mitzva of Krias Shema is automatically having kavana to fulfill the mitzva of Yichud Hashem.  If so, even if saying it after the zman is not a kiyum of the mitzva of Talmud Torah, it is a kiyum of the mitzva of Yichud Hashem.

Lechem Mishna:
מצות עשה להתפלל בכל יום שנאמר וכו'. י"ל למה לא התחיל בהל' ק"ש מ"ע לקרות ק"ש כמו שהתחיל כאן בהלכות תפלה וי"ל כדתירץ ספר חרדים דמצות יחוד חייב אדם לייחד בכל רגע ולכך לא חשבה לאחת ממ"ע שבתורה לבד 

There is an interesting mussar haskeil here.  We've discussed the Gaon's shitta that one should be careful to not have kavana for the mitzva when he says Shema in Le'olam, because  you'll be yotzei before the Birkos Krias Shema (and similarly when you sing Tzur MiShelo.)  (I believe that the Gaon also holds that you don't have the maalah of Smichas Geula LiTefilla when you are not being yotzei Krias Shema now.)  Here we learned that the Chafetz Chaim holds that if you say Krias Shema after the zman, you can be over Bal Tosif.  This means that if a person says Krias Shma after the zman of the Magen Avraham, but during the zman of the Gr'a, not only will he not be mekayeim the mitzva according to the Magen Avraham, but he will be over Bal Tosif as well.  The same is true when you say Krias Shma in Kedusha of Mussaf, which is very often long after Zeman Kerias Shema.  To avoid this problem, you would have to have kavana that you're not saying it for the mitzva if the result is an issur of Bal Tosif.
Thus, that there are two times that a person has to be careful not to have kavana to be yotzei Kerias Shema, once in Le'olam and once after the Zman of the Magen Avraham, or generally after the zman.


  1. 1. I don't understand R Moshe's raya - Gemara there says that there is an issue of Bal tosif only because כולה יומא זימניה

    2. I didn't look up the LChM either, but Rambam does count KS as a separate mitzva, so what's his Teirutz

    3. Ze shinun veze shinun (but some achronim say it's machlokes Bavli yerushalmi)

    1. 1. I don't, either, and I am supposed to be a baki in the Igros. But trust me, if he says it, it makes sense. Like Reb Meshulam Igra, sometimes hasbara does not equal the level of amkus.
      2. The olam and I have been arguing about exactly that nekuda for the last two weeks.
      3. It certainly does look like a mach bav and yeru. See Tosfos MK 9b. Anyway, it's pashut that the Bavli doesn't patter krias shma.